Importance Of Farm Irrigation

Irrigation systems are in practice to supply water to the soil by using synthetic measures.

It is prerequisite to provide and maintain the moisture level of soil for the proper and healthy growth of a plant.

This type of irrigation system is applicable in all plant farming areas like fields, orchards, plant nurseries, gardens, etc.

Different methods are now working for the purpose of proper distribution of water to plants for better productivity.

Types of Irrigation Techniques

According to needs of agriculture practices, numerous techniques are being developed to irrigate water for the crops.

All of these are designed according to the requirement of water, nature of seasonal crop impact, initial cost and labor required.

The main purpose of all of this modification is to improve the overall progress of the crop and profit.

There are following types developed to achieve these goals.

Surface Method - A process which helps to distribute water in the farming land with the help of the natural force of gravity called surface application.

This form is also known as flood method and is an example of traditional artificial water supply.

Seventy percent of people from farming background adopt this irrigation system because it is simple in application and cost-effective.

This category is sub-grouped into basin, uncontrolled, furrow and border category also. Basin and border are used in orchards where generally fruit trees are growing.

Other methods are widely used for all other farming applications

Drip Irrigation - In this process, water is provided to plant by using the tube like fabrication which has a small diameter. Trickle irrigation is another name of this type which is used by common man. It provides water in the form of droplets. It helps to reduce the water loss as well as helping to provide nutrients to the plant.

Sprinkler - Here a small device is being attached to the pipe which helps to discharge water like a rainfall. A sprinkler irrigation system is used for many different types of crops and is sometimes also used to suppress the dust in surroundings.

Sub-surface - In this world, there are few geographical areas where a level of the water is low as compared to other regions for example dry areas.

In such circumstances, plants are unable to take water from the soil for the purpose of their growth.

This is a permanent setting of irrigation systems inside the soil which provides water directly to the plant roots of the soils to facilitate their growth fully.

This is the most expensive method as compared to others.

The Challenges of Managing Water Resources for Irrigation!

Today, fresh water for consumption or usage with irrigation systems is considered a finite resource.

Since the 1960s, the demand for water has dramatically increased, both due to growing populations and the need to irrigate to feed them as well as due to climate conditions.

With groundwater use of nearly 100 billion gallons a day for irrigation and direct use in just the U.S. alone, efficient management of this finite resource has become paramount to be able to keep irrigating the nearly 2 million acres of farmland in the country. 

Increased Competition for Water Rights

Using more efficient and precise irrigation systems as irrigation technology improves, managing water resources has become somewhat more straightforward, but there are still challenges ahead that must be considered and solved.

One such challenge is the increased competition for water rights in the United State and throughout the world as water supplies continue to slowly dwindle. 

Rapid Depletion of Water Resources

Another challenge that requires careful attention is water overdrafting, considering the fact that water is being withdrawn from many aquifers at a faster rate than natural drainage areas can refill them.

Water loss due to evaporation during irrigation is contributing to this problem.

The eventual result could be reduced aquifer capacity and water quality as supplies slowly diminish.

The depletion of aquifers due to overdrafting can also lead to geological changes that further reduce them, as the ground substance and surface change due to reduced water in the soil.

After geological changes occur, affected aquifers are no longer able to fill to the same capacity, reducing the amount of water that is accessible later. 

Over and Under Usage of Irrigation

Under and over irrigation are issues that both present additional water management concerns.

Under irrigation providing only enough water to irrigate plants can create salinity issues in the soil that later requires leaching to remove the excess salts.

Over irrigation results in wasted water and fertilizers, which can pollute the ground and water supplies as well as change the ways the soil drains. 

Can Technology Help With This Problem?

Noting these predictable concerns, it is critical that current water resources be protected and managed to prevent these and other conditions that can result in a smaller supply available for irrigation.

In addition, it is essential to keep developing irrigation system technology that makes the most efficient use of water resources while avoiding other problems like evaporation and salinity.

For water resources to continuously supply irrigation systems for farmers throughout the country, better water resource management and wiser water usage are required.